Improved Estimators of Model Performance Efficiency for Skewed Hydrologic Data

Abstract The Nash‐Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) and the Kling‐Gupta Efficiency (KGE) are now the most widely used indices in hydrology for evaluation of the goodness‐of‐fit between model simulations S, and observations O. We introduce two theoretical (probabilistic) definitions of efficiency, E and E’, based on the estimators NSE and KGE, respectively, which enable controlled Monte‐Carlo experiments […]